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EXPDP/IMPDP与EXP/IMP在不同用户和表空间之间迁移数据的实现方法
2014-09-01 09:52:23         来源:aaron8219's Oracle&Linux Technology Blog  
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1. EXPDP/IMPDP方式

SQL> create user zlm identified by zlm;

User created.

SQL> grant connect,resource to zlm;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> create tablespace ts_zlm datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora10g/zlm01.dbf' size 100M reuse;

Tablespace created.

SQL> alter user zlm default tablespace ts_zlm;

User altered.

SQL> select username,default_tablespace from dba_users where username='ZLM';

USERNAME DEFAULT_TABLESPACE
------------------------------ ------------------------------
ZLM TS_ZLM

SQL> col name for a50
SQL> select name,bytes/1024/1024 from v$datafile where name like '%users01.dbf';

NAME BYTES/1024/1024
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora10g/users01.dbf 5

SQL> set lin 120 pages 120
SQL> col username for a8
SQL> col name for a45
SQL> select a.username,a.default_tablespace,b.name from dba_users a,v$datafile b,v$tablespace c where a.default_tablespace=c.name and b.ts#=c.ts# and a.username='SCOTT';

USERNAME DEFAULT_TABLESPACE NAME
-------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------
SCOTT USERS /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora10g/users01.dbf

SQL> alter database datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora10g/users01.dbf' resize 100M;

Database altered.

SQL> select name,bytes/1024/1024 from v$datafile where name like '%users01.dbf';

NAME BYTES/1024/1024
--------------------------------------------- ---------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora10g/users01.dbf 100

SQL> select owner,directory_name from dba_directories;

OWNER DIRECTORY_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
SYS DATA_PUMP_DIR
SYS SUBDIR
SYS XMLDIR
SYS MEDIA_DIR
SYS LOG_FILE_DIR
SYS DATA_FILE_DIR
SYS WORK_DIR
SYS ADMIN_DIR

SQL> create directory zlm_pump as '/u01/expdp';

Directory created.

SQL> !mkdir /u01/expdp

SQL> alter user scott identified by tiger account unlock;

User altered.

SQL> grant connect,resource to scott;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant read,write on directory zlm_pump to scott;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> conn scott/tiger
Connected.
SQL> create table zlm1 as select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL> insert into zlm1 select * from dba_objects;

50318 rows created.

SQL> /

50318 rows created.

SQL> select count(*) from zlm1;

COUNT(*)
----------
150954

SQL> select table_name from user_tables where tablespace_name='USERS';

TABLE_NAME
------------------------------
ZLM1
SALGRADE
BONUS
EMP
DEPT

[oracle@ora10g ~]$ expdp scott/tiger parallel=2 directory=zlm_pump dumpfile=scott01.dmp,scott02.dmp tablespaces=users

Export: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sunday, 31 August, 2014 14:35:29

Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01": scott/******** parallel=2 directory=zlm_pump dumpfile=scott01.dmp,scott02.dmp tablespaces=users
Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...--可以通过estimate=block(默认值)指定,还有一个是statistic
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 17.18 MB
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
. . exported "SCOTT"."ZLM1" 14.06 MB 150954 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."DEPT" 5.656 KB 4 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."EMP" 7.820 KB 14 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."SALGRADE" 5.585 KB 5 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."BONUS" 0 KB 0 rows
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS
Master table "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
******************************************************************************
Dump file set for SCOTT.SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01 is:
/u01/expdp/scott01.dmp
/u01/expdp/scott02.dmp
Job "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully completed at 14:36:10

[oracle@ora10g ~]$ impdp zlm/zlm parallel=2 remap_schema=scott:zlm remap_tablespace=users:ts_zlm directory=zlm_pump dumpfile=scott01.dmp,scott02.dmp

Import: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sunday, 31 August, 2014 14:41:30

Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
Master table "ZLM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
Starting "ZLM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_01": zlm/******** parallel=2 remap_schema=scott:zlm remap_tablespace=users:ts_zlm directory=zlm_pump dumpfile=scott01.dmp,scott02.dmp
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
. . imported "ZLM"."DEPT" 5.656 KB 4 rows
. . imported "ZLM"."EMP" 7.820 KB 14 rows
. . imported "ZLM"."SALGRADE" 5.585 KB 5 rows
. . imported "ZLM"."BONUS" 0 KB 0 rows
. . imported "ZLM"."ZLM1" 14.06 MB 150954 rows
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS
Job "ZLM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_01" successfully completed at 14:41:43
[oracle@ora10g ~]$ sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Aug 31 14:43:12 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

SQL> conn zlm/zlm
Connected.
SQL> select table_name from user_tables where tablespace_name='TS_ZLM';

TABLE_NAME
------------------------------
ZLM1
SALGRADE
BONUS
EMP
DEPT

SQL> select object_name from user_objects;

OBJECT_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DEPT
EMP
BONUS
SALGRADE
ZLM1
PK_DEPT
PK_EMP

SCHEMA SCOTT的表空间USERS中的全部对象已经被导入到SCHEMA ZLM的表空间,包括表和索引

2. EXP/IMP方式

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> drop user zlm cascade;

User dropped.

SQL> create user zlm identified by zlm;

User created.

SQL> grant connect,resource to zlm;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> alter user zlm default tablespace ts_zlm;

User altered.

SQL> conn zlm/zlm
Connected.
SQL> select * from cat;

no rows selected

SQL> !
[oracle@ora10g ~]$ exp scott/tiger owner=scott file=/u01/scott01.dmp

Export: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Aug 31 15:42:00 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
Export done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
server uses ZHS16GBK character set (possible charset conversion)
. exporting pre-schema procedural objects and actions
. exporting foreign function library names for user SCOTT
. exporting PUBLIC type synonyms
. exporting private type synonyms
. exporting object type definitions for user SCOTT
About to export SCOTT's objects ...
. exporting database links
. exporting sequence numbers
. exporting cluster definitions
. about to export SCOTT's tables via Conventional Path ...
. . exporting table BONUS 0 rows exported
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
. . exporting table DEPT 4 rows exported
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
. . exporting table EMP 14 rows exported
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
. . exporting table SALGRADE 5 rows exported
EXP-00091: Exporting questionable statistics.
. . exporting table ZLM1 150954 rows exported
. exporting synonyms
. exporting views
. exporting stored procedures
. exporting operators
. exporting referential integrity constraints
. exporting triggers
. exporting indextypes
. exporting bitmap, functional and extensible indexes
. exporting posttables actions
. exporting materialized views
. exporting snapshot logs
. exporting job queues
. exporting refresh groups and children
. exporting dimensions
. exporting post-schema procedural objects and actions
. exporting statistics
Export terminated successfully with warnings.
[oracle@ora10g ~]$ imp zlm/zlm fromuser=scott touser=zlm file=/u01/exp/scott01.dmp

Import: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Aug 31 15:43:01 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

IMP-00002: failed to open /u01/exp/scott01.dmp for read --路径指定错了
Import file: expdat.dmp > /u01/scott01.dmp

Export file created by EXPORT:V10.02.01 via conventional path

Warning: the objects were exported by SCOTT, not by you

import done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
import server uses ZHS16GBK character set (possible charset conversion)
. . importing table "BONUS" 0 rows imported
. . importing table "DEPT" 4 rows imported
. . importing table "EMP" 14 rows imported
. . importing table "SALGRADE" 5 rows imported
. . importing table "ZLM1" 150954 rows imported
About to enable constraints...
Import terminated successfully with warnings.
[oracle@ora10g ~]$ exit
SQL> col object_name for a15
SQL> select object_name,object_type from user_objects;

OBJECT_NAME OBJECT_TYPE
--------------- -------------------
BONUS TABLE
DEPT TABLE
PK_DEPT INDEX
EMP TABLE
PK_EMP INDEX
SALGRADE TABLE
ZLM1 TABLE

SQL> select table_name,tablespace_name from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
BONUS USERS
DEPT USERS
EMP USERS
SALGRADE USERS
ZLM1 USERS

注意,用imp导入后的对象,都是存放在exp导出时的表空间的,如果要迁移到别的表空间,就要使用alter table move tablespace来实现,先通过下面的SQL拼接语句来获得批量move的语句: SQL> select 'alter table '||table_name||' MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;' from user_tables;

'ALTERTABLE'||TABLE_NAME||'MOVETABLESPACETS_ZLM;'
------------------------------------------------------------------
alter table BONUS MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;
alter table DEPT MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;
alter table EMP MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;
alter table SALGRADE MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;
alter table ZLM1 MOVE TABLESPACE ts_zlm;

SQL> select 'ALTER INDEX ' ||index_name || ' REBUILD TABLESPACE ts_zlm;' from user_indexes;

'ALTERINDEX'||INDEX_NAME||'REBUILDTABLESPACETS_ZLM;'
---------------------------------------------------------------------
ALTER INDEX PK_EMP REBUILD TABLESPACE ts_zlm;
ALTER INDEX PK_DEPT REBUILD TABLESPACE ts_zlm;

SQL> select table_name,tablespace_name from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
SALGRADE TS_ZLM
EMP TS_ZLM
ZLM1 TS_ZLM
DEPT TS_ZLM
BONUS TS_ZLM

SQL> select index_name,tablespace_name from user_indexes;

INDEX_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
PK_EMP TS_ZLM
PK_DEPT TS_ZLM

可以看到,zlm用户imp导入的数据库对象已经全部迁移到TS_ZLM表空间去了

总结:

EXPDP/IPMDP只能在server上运行,其运行效率完全取决于磁盘I/O,而EXP/IMP不仅可以运行在server上,也可以运行在client上,所以除了磁盘I/O的制约因素,还有网络方面的因素。

EXPDP/IMPDP比EXP/IMP性能有很大的提高,其中影响最大的就是paralle,通常设置为CPU的个数,通过该参数可以并行导出,大大提高导出速度,而EXP/IMP是没有这个功能的,最多也就只有一个DIRECT=Y,使导出不用经过SELECT到SGA的BUFFER中,提高的速度是有限的,注意他们之间的语法也有不小的区别,参数不可互相替代。

EXPDP/IMPDP可以通过remap_schema和remap_tablespace直接实现不同用户和表空间之间的数据迁移;而EXP/IMP则稍微麻烦一点,需要ALTER TABLE xxx MOVE TABLESPACE xxx/ALTER INDEX xxx REBUILD TABLESPACE xxx方式来实现。move相当于把表再重建一次,可以修改storage参数(如initial、pctfree、pctincrease等),还可以move到另外的表空间,如果不指定表空间,则在原来的表空间中move,因此做move操作时,目标表空间需要保证有这个表同样大小的剩余空间,整个操作相当于exp/imp(从表空间A导出到表空间B),move完表后要重建索引。

基于以上几种原因,现在做数据逻辑迁移都是用EXPDP/IMPDP而很少再使用EXP/IMP了。

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