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思科VPP源码分析(路由框架分析二)
2017-01-11 11:08:00      个评论    来源:呆呆辉的专栏  
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基本概念

VPP路由可以看作是思科iOS CEF的翻版。将路由分为路由表和转发表。路由表的实现基于hash,转发表的实现基于8-8-8-8 mtrie树。路由表存储了所有可能的路由表项(其中最优路由将安装到转发表中),转发表存储了实际使用的路由项(数据包转发真正查找的是这个转发表。)
VPP转发表查找的最后结果将得到一个DPO(data path object),DPO将指示数据包的下一步动作(分类,ARP查找,丢弃等等,请查看DPO_TYPES枚举类型)。
以下皆以ipv4来分析,只分析了我看懂了的一部分。

路由表:

typedef struct ip4_fib_t
{
  /* Hash table for each prefix length mapping. */
  //根据掩码大小对路由项作hash
  uword *fib_entry_by_dst_address[33];

  /* Mtrie for fast lookups.  Hash is used to maintain overlapping prefixes. */
  //8-8-8-8 mtrie转发表
  ip4_fib_mtrie_t mtrie;

  /* Table ID (hash key) for this FIB. */
  u32 table_id;

  /* Index into FIB vector. */
  u32 index;

  /* flow hash configuration */
  flow_hash_config_t flow_hash_config;

  /* N-tuple classifier indices */
  u32 fwd_classify_table_index;
  u32 rev_classify_table_index;

} ip4_fib_t;

路由表项hash链入fib_entry_by_dst_address中。
转发表项安装在mtrie中,这是实际被数据平面使用的查找数据库
路由表的任何变化,将导致转发表的更新。

路由表项:

typedef struct fib_entry_t_ {
    /**
     * Base class. The entry's node representation in the graph.
     */
     //所有路由关键数据结构都已这个打头,可以看做是他们的基类。用来将这些不同数据结构连在一起,又能用统一的接口来遍历。
    fib_node_t fe_node;
    /**
     * The prefix of the route. this is const just to be sure.
     * It is the entry's key/identity and so should never change.
     */
     //可以理解为路由目的地址+掩码
    const fib_prefix_t fe_prefix;
    /**
     * The index of the FIB table this entry is in
     */
    u32 fe_fib_index;
    /**
     * The load-balance used for forwarding.
     *
     * We don't share the EOS and non-EOS even in case when they could be
     * because:
     *   - complexity & reliability v. memory
     *       determining the conditions where sharing is possible is non-trivial.
     *   - separate LBs means we can get the EOS bit right in the MPLS label DPO
     *     and so save a few clock cycles in the DP imposition node since we can
     *     paint the header straight on without the need to check the packet
     *     type to derive the EOS bit value.
     */
    dpo_id_t fe_lb; // [FIB_FORW_CHAIN_MPLS_NUM];
    /**
     * Vector of source infos.
     * Most entries will only have 1 source. So we optimise for memory usage,
     * which is preferable since we have many entries.
     */
    //同一个路由目的,可以是由不同的来源添加的,所有来源类型查看fib_source_t_枚举类型,数值越小的来源,优先级越高,最高优先级的来源的路由将安装到转发表,低优先级来源的路由项默默地保存在最高优先级来源后面。这个数组是有序的,添加删除都将导致排序,0号位置为最优路由。
    fib_entry_src_t *fe_srcs;
    /**
     * the path-list for which this entry is a child. This is also the path-list
     * that is contributing forwarding for this entry.
     */
    fib_node_index_t fe_parent;
    /**
     * index of this entry in the parent's child list.
     * This is set when this entry is added as a child, but can also
     * be changed by the parent as it manages its list.
     */
    u32 fe_sibling;

    /**
     * A vector of delegates.
     */
    fib_entry_delegate_t *fe_delegates;
} fib_entry_t;

source:
表明该路由项的来源,每个source结构中包含了一个path_list,这个表包含了所有可能的下一跳。

typedef struct fib_entry_src_t_ {
    /**
     * A vector of path extensions
     */
    struct fib_path_ext_t_ *fes_path_exts;

    /**
     * The path-list created by the source
     */
     //通过它可以找到该source的path_list
    fib_node_index_t fes_pl;
    /**
     * Which source this info block is for
     */
    fib_source_t fes_src;
    /**
     * Flags on the source
     */
    fib_entry_src_flag_t fes_flags;

    /**
     * 1 bytes ref count. This is not the number of users of the Entry
     * (which is itself not large, due to path-list sharing), but the number
     * of times a given source has been added. Which is even fewer
     */
    u8 fes_ref_count;

    /**
     * Flags the source contributes to the entry
     */
    fib_entry_flag_t fes_entry_flags;

    /**
     * Source specific info
     */
    union {
    struct {
        /**
         * the index of the FIB entry that is the covering entry
         */
        fib_node_index_t fesr_cover;
        /**
         * This source's index in the cover's list
         */
        u32 fesr_sibling;
    } rr;
    struct {
        /**
         * the index of the FIB entry that is the covering entry
         */
        fib_node_index_t fesa_cover;
        /**
         * This source's index in the cover's list
         */
        u32 fesa_sibling;
    } adj;
    struct {
        /**
         * the index of the FIB entry that is the covering entry
         */
        fib_node_index_t fesi_cover;
        /**
         * This source's index in the cover's list
         */
        u32 fesi_sibling;
    } interface;
    struct {
        /**
         * This MPLS local label associated with the prefix.
         */
        mpls_label_t fesm_label;

        /**
         * the indicies of the LFIB entries created
         */
        fib_node_index_t fesm_lfes[2];
    } mpls;
    struct {
        /**
         * The source FIB index.
         */
            fib_node_index_t fesl_fib_index;
    } lisp;
    };
} fib_entry_src_t;

path和path_list:
为了到达目的路由的下一跳称作path,所有可能的下一跳组合成path_list。

typedef struct fib_path_list_t_ {
    /**
     * A path-list is a node in the FIB graph.
     */
    fib_node_t fpl_node;

    /**
     * Flags on the path-list
     */
    fib_path_list_flags_t fpl_flags;

    /**
     * The next-hop protocol for the paths in this path list.
     * Note that fixing the proto here means we don't support a mix of
     * v4 and v6 paths. ho hum.
     */
    fib_protocol_t fpl_nh_proto;

    /**
     * Vector of paths indicies for all configured paths.
     * For shareable path-lists this list MUST not change.
     */
     //path数组,记录了所有下一跳
    fib_node_index_t *fpl_paths;

    /**
     * the RPF list calculated for this path list
     */
    fib_node_index_t fpl_urpf;
} fib_path_list_t;

关键函数

路由的添加:
从vnet_ip_route_cmd函数入手,这是通过CLI添加路由的入口函数。从中找到路由添加关键函数fib_table_entry_path_add2。

fib_node_index_t
fib_table_entry_path_add2 (u32 fib_index,
               const fib_prefix_t *prefix,
               fib_source_t source,
               fib_entry_flag_t flags,
               fib_route_path_t *rpath)
{
    fib_node_index_t fib_entry_index;
    fib_table_t *fib_table;
    u32 ii;

    //找到路由表
    fib_table = fib_table_get(fib_index, prefix->fp_proto);
    //精确匹配到路由表项,注意不是最长匹配。
    fib_entry_index = fib_table_lookup_exact_match_i(fib_table, prefix);

    for (ii = 0; ii < vec_len(rpath); ii++)
    {
    fib_table_route_path_fixup(prefix, &rpath[ii]);
    }

    if (FIB_NODE_INDEX_INVALID == fib_entry_index)
    {
    //创建路由表项,包括souces,path_list等,比较复杂,将详细分析。
    fib_entry_index = fib_entry_create(fib_index, prefix,
                       source, flags,
                       rpath);

    //路由表项链入hash表,很简单。
    fib_table_entry_insert(fib_table, prefix, fib_entry_index);
        fib_table->ft_src_route_counts[source]++;
    }
    else
    {
        int was_sourced;

        was_sourced = fib_entry_is_sourced(fib_entry_index, source);
    //添加一个下一跳到路由表项,可能会新建source,也可能只是在现有source的path_list中增加一个path
    fib_entry_path_add(fib_entry_index, source, flags, rpath);;

        if (was_sourced != fib_entry_is_sourced(fib_entry_index, source))
        {
        //如果这个source是从无到有,更新下统计值
            fib_table->ft_src_route_counts[source]++;
        }
    }

    return (fib_entry_index);
}
fib_node_index_t
fib_entry_create (u32 fib_index,
          const fib_prefix_t *prefix,
          fib_source_t source,
          fib_entry_flag_t flags,
          const fib_route_path_t *paths)
{
    fib_node_index_t fib_entry_index;
    fib_entry_t *fib_entry;

    ASSERT(0 < vec_len(paths));

    //简单的分配一个初始化了的路由表项,很简单。
    fib_entry = fib_entry_alloc(fib_index, prefix, &fib_entry_index);

    /*
     * since this is a new entry create, we don't need to check for winning
     * sources - there is only one.
     */
     //不同的source有不同的fesv_add函数。这里就是为了调用它。
    fib_entry = fib_entry_src_action_add(fib_entry, source, flags,
                                         drop_dpo_get(
                                             fib_proto_to_dpo(
                                                 fib_entry_get_proto(fib_entry))));
    //不同的source有不同的fesv_path_swap函数。这里就是为了调用它。                                             
    fib_entry_src_action_path_swap(fib_entry,
                   source,
                   flags,
                   paths);
    /*
     * handle possible realloc's by refetching the pointer
     */
    fib_entry = fib_entry_get(fib_entry_index);
    //不同的source有不同的fesv_activate函数。这里就是为了调用它。如果该source没有fesv_activate函数,则调用fib_entry_src_action_install
    fib_entry_src_action_activate(fib_entry, source);

    //调用source的fesv_installed函数和fesv_fwd_update函数
    fib_entry_post_install_actions(fib_entry, source, FIB_ENTRY_FLAG_NONE);

    return (fib_entry_index);
}
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