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linux命令tar

2013-08-17 11:32:58            作者:hzxlb910
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linux命令tar

 

[root@test flume]# tar --help

Usage: tar [OPTION...] [FILE]...

GNU `tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can

restore individual files from the archive.

 

Examples:

  tar -cf archive.tar foo bar  # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.

  tar -tvf archive.tar         # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.

  tar -xf archive.tar          # Extract all files from archive.tar.

 

 Main operation mode:

 

  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive

  -c, --create               create a new archive

  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system

      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)

  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive

  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive

      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit

  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive

  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 

 Operation modifiers:

 

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental

                             archives (default)

  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup

  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup

      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files

      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive

  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable

      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating

                             incremental archives

      --no-seek              archive is not seekable

      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file

                             in the archive; this option is valid only in

                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,

                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of

                             files is given either on the command line or via

                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1

      --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]

                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies

                             --sparse)

  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 

 Overwrite control:

 

  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting

      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than

                             their archive copies

      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories

      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting

      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when

                             extracting (default)

      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory

      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive

  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it

  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 

 Select output stream:

 

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children

      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as

                             error

  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output

      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 

 Handling of file attributes:

 

      --acls                 Save the ACLs to the archive

      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either

                             by restoring the times after reading

                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the

                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')

      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and

                             permissions of extracted directories until the end

                             of extraction

      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files

      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files

      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE

  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time

      --no-acls              Don't extract the ACLs from the archive

      --no-delay-directory-restore

                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore

                             option

      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary

                             users)

      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions

                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)

      --no-selinux           Don't extract the SELinux context from the archive

                            

      --no-xattrs            Don't extract the user/root xattrs from the

                             archive

      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names

      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files

  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions

                             extract information about file permissions

                             (default for superuser)

      --preserve             same as both -p and -s

      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as

                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)

  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order

                             sort names to extract to match archive

      --selinux              Save the SELinux context to the archive

      --xattrs               Save the user/root xattrs to the archive

 

 Device selection and switching:

 

  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE

      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon

  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME

                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)

  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes

  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive

      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt

      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh

      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 

 Device blocking:

 

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record

  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)

  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)

      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 

 Archive format selection:

 

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 

 FORMAT is one of the following:

 

    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format

    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar <= 1.12

    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format

    posix                    same as pax

    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format

    v7                       old V7 tar format

 

      --old-archive, --portability

                             same as --format=v7

      --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...

                             control pax keywords

      --posix                same as --format=posix

  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at

                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern

                             for volume name

 

 Compression options:

 

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression

                             program

  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG

                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)

  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2

  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz

      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip

      --lzma                 filter the archive through lzma

      --lzop

      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the

                             compression program

  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip

  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 

 Local file selection:

 

      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name

                             starts with a dash)

      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL

  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR

      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN

      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files

      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing

                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself

      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG

      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing

                             CACHEDIR.TAG

      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,

                             except for FILE itself

      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE

      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories

                             containing FILE

      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories

  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they

                             point to

      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they

                             refer to

  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME

                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive

      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only

      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option

      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories

      --no-unquote           do not unquote filenames read with -T

      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C

  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE

                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE

      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive

  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading `/'s from file names

      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)

      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'

                             unless overridden by environment variable

                             SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)

  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE

      --unquote              unquote filenames read with -T (default)

  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 

 File name transformations:

 

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file

                             names on extraction

      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION

                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file

                             names

 

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

 

      --anchored             patterns match file name start

      --ignore-case          ignore case

      --no-anchored          patterns match after any `/' (default for

                             exclusion)

      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)

      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching

      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match `/'

      --wildcards            use wildcards (default)

      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

 

 Informative output:

 

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record

                             (default 10)

      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint

      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE

  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped

      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING

      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING

      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE

                             values

  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each

                             message

      --show-defaults        show tar defaults

      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory

                             that does not match search criteria

      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names

                             show file or archive names after transformation

      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;

                             with an argument - print total bytes when this

                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,

                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names

                             without SIG prefix are also accepted

      --utc                  print file modification dates in UTC

  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed

      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control

  -w, --interactive, --confirmation

                             ask for confirmation for every action

 

 Compatibility options:

 

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when

                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 

 Other options:

 

  -?, --help                 give this help list

      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options

      --usage                give a short usage message

      --version              print program version

 

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional

for any corresponding short options.

 

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.

The version control may be set with --backup or VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

 

  none, off       never make backups

  t, numbered     make numbered backups

  nil, existing   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

  never, simple   always make simple backups

 

Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:

 

  literal

  shell

  shell-always

  c

  c-maybe

  escape

  locale

  clocale

 

*This* tar defaults to:

--format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape --rmt-command=/sbin/rmt

--rsh-command=/usr/bin/rsh

 

Report bugs to <bug-tar@gnu.org>.

 

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